Varicella zoster virus glycoproteins

In this fashion the virus can persist in the cell (and thus the host) indefinitely.While primary infection is often accompanied by a self-limited period of clinical illness, long-term latency is symptom-free.In this report the family Herpesviridae was divided into 3 subfamilies (Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae) and 5 unnamed genera: 21 viruses were listed.In some host cells, a small number of viral genes termed latency associated transcript (LAT) accumulate instead.The members of this family are also known as herpesviruses.In total, there are 8 herpesvirus types that infect humans: herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, EBV (Epstein-Barr virus), human cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, human herpesvirus 7, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.Reactivation of latent viruses has been implicated in a number of diseases (e.g. Following activation, transcription of viral genes transitions from latency-associated LAT to multiple lytic genes; these lead to enhanced replication and virus production. Clinically, lytic activation is often accompanied by emergence of non-specific symptoms such as low grade fever, headache, sore throat, malaise, and rash as well as clinical signs such as swollen or tender lymph nodes and immunological findings such as reduced levels of natural killer cells.At least five species of Herpesviridae – HSV-1 and HSV-2 (both of which can cause orolabial herpes and genital herpes), Varicella zoster virus (which causes chicken-pox and shingles), Epstein-Barr virus (which causes mononucleosis), and Cytomegalovirus – are extremely widespread among humans.In the second ICTV report in 1976 this genus was elevated to family level - the Herpetoviridae.The family name is derived from the Greek word herpein ("to creep"), referring to the latent, recurring infections typical of this group of viruses.The genus Herpesvirus was established in 1971 in the first report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).Herpesviridae can cause latent or lytic infections.Herpesviruses all share a common structure—all herpesviruses are composed of relatively large double-stranded, linear DNA genomes encoding 100-200 genes encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid which is itself wrapped in a protein layer called the tegument containing both viral proteins and viral m RNAs and a lipid bilayer membrane called the envelope. All herpesviruses are nuclear-replicating—the viral DNA is transcribed to m RNA within the infected cell's nucleus.

Because of possible confusion with viruses derived from reptiles this name was changed in the third report in 1979 to Herpesviridae.This genus consisted of 23 viruses and 4 groups of viruses.Within the nucleus, replication of viral DNA and transcription of viral genes occurs.Following binding of viral envelope glycoproteins to cell membrane receptors, the virion is internalized and dismantled, allowing viral DNA to migrate to the cell nucleus.Infection is initiated when a viral particle contacts a cell with specific types of receptor molecules on the cell surface.


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More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one of these, and a latent form of the virus remains in most people.